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1. Read and translate the text.


Types of Payments in Foreign Trade

Payment of goods supplied in the local trade is a rather simple matter. It is made either in advance or within a sensibly short period after delivery. If a buyer fails to pay, there comes legal action1 after which payment can be enforced.

The matter is different in foreign trade because a great deal of time is spent on correspondence, dispatch and delivery. It is here that banks play a fundamental part. Their services have to be paid for, but are not expensive and always necessary - the bank comes into each transaction at this or that stage.

Payments in foreign trade are usually made by: • 1. banker´s transfer; • 2. bill of exchange; • 3. letter of credit.

As well as in the local trade, payment may be made a) in advance; b) on open account.

Payments in advance are used 1) when a buyer is in urgent need; 2) when a buyer is unknown to a seller; 3) in the case of a single isolated transaction. The method of payment in these cases will probably be by banker´s draft or banker´s transfer.

Open account terms are granted by a seller to a buyer of unquestionable reputation2 in whom he has complete confidence, eg regular customers, agents or distributors. In these cases payment is made quarterly by bill of exchange or banker´s transfer.

The banker´s transfer is a mere transference of money from the bank account of a buyer in his own country to the bank account of the seller in the seller´s country. It is only necessary for the customer to send a letter of instruction to his bank - or use a special form. The transfer is executed at current rates of exchange3 and subject to any exchange control regulations of the countries concerned.

The bill of exchange (B / E) is a written order ......

AL / C may be paid to the seller not immediately upon execution of the order. If there is an agreement between the seller and the buyer the agent bank can accept a bill of exchange drawn by the seller on the agent bank. The buyer gets credit and the action is absolutely safe for the seller, who can discount the bill for ready cash if he needs it.

Exercises on the Text

2. Translate the following words and make up 5 sentences:

acceptor; creditor; debtor; discredit; failure; reputation; transference; transaction; binding; fundamental; urgent; isolated; unquestionable; subject to; equally; quarterly; debt; acknowledge; legally

3. Give English equivalents of the following:

a) acceptor; the debtor; creditor; Bank account; Bank transfer; a bill of exchange; letters of credit; current exchange rate; the date of payment; advance; open account; on a quarterly basis; legally binding; unpaid by the due date; to accept; to protest the bill; prosecute

b) trial; single (single) transactions; impeccable reputation; complete discrediting; fully trusted subject to (exposed) to smth .; on demand

4. Explain the meaning of the following in English:

acceptor; creditor; debtor; a bill of exchange; a letter of credit; a banker´s transfer; to accept

5. Answer the following questions:

• 1) What types of payments in foreign trade do you know?

• 2) In what way may they be made?

• 3) When are payments in advance used?

• 4) What is the method of payment in such cases?

• 5) Whom are open acount terms granted to?

• 6) In what way is payment in these cases made?

• 7) What is the banker´s transfer?

• 8) What is necessary for a customer to do while paying by banker´s transfer?

• 9) What is the bill of exchange?

• 10) When does the B / E become legally binding?

• 11) What is the letter of credit?

• 12) How does it work?

• 13) Why are both the buyer and the sell
6. Fill in the required prepositions:

1) Payment__goods__the home trade is made either__advance or__a reasonably short period__delivery.

2) There is little time lost__correspondence and__delivery.

3) A bill__exchange is an order__written form addressed__one person__another, to pay__demand or__a named date a certain sum__money__a person named__the bill, or__his order.

4) The banker´s transfer is carried__ __current rates__exchange.

5) This transaction is simple and may be speeded__ __cabled instructions if desired.

6) The L / C is ideal__ individual transactions or__series, it gives protection__both the seller and the buyer.

7. Read and translate the text.

One of the important features of the bill of exchange is that it is negotiable. It means that it can be used by the holder to pay his own debts. To do this, the holder of the B / E must endorse it, ie sign his name on the bill before handing it in to the next holder.

The owner of the bill can also sell it to the bank, who will pay face value, less interest: this is called to discount a bill. The other way to use a bill is to leave it as security for a loan.

It is due to its free negotiability that the B / E is known to be a useful means of payment in foreign trade. Undoubtedly, its successful operating depends on confidence and trust. Before handling bills each individual company´s status and reputation are thoroughly checked and taken into account.

8. Give English equivalents to the following Russian terms:

par value; cash collateral; endorse the document (to make a transfer inscription); Issued bill; discounted bill (to reduce the discount rate at the early payment)

9. What do we call?

1) to sign the document (cheque, bill) passing rights on it to another person;

2) able to be negotiated;

3) documents or valuables given as cover for loan;

4) the value on a bank-note or stamped on a coin;

5) to sell a bill to a bank for a price that is lower than the value of the bill when it becomes due for payment.

10. Translate into English:

1) One of the most frequently used methods of payment in foreign trade operations is a letter of credit.

2) The holder of a bill can sell it to the bank at face value.

3) pay to domestic suppliers is usually made or by prepayment or for a reasonable period of time after delivery.

4) You can pay for this product at the current exchange rate.

5) Payment terms are provided on open account customer with an impeccable reputation.

11. Write a tactful letter to your foreign customer the business with whom you value highly. The customer usually settles his account by banker´s transfer, but has failed to pay the latest account and has not given you any explanation; payment is now a week overdue.

12. Write a letter of reply on behalf of the suppliers.

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